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Ethics. [electronic resource]

By: Dewey, John, 1859-1952.
Contributor(s): Tufts, James Hayden, 1862-1942 [joint author.].
Material type: TextTextPublisher: New York, H. Holt and Company [c1932]Edition: Rev. ed. By John Dewey ... and James H. Tufts.Description: 2 p. ., iii-xiii, 528 p. 21 cm.Subject(s): Ethics | MoraleDDC classification: 170 Online resources: Free eBook from the Internet Archive | Additional information and access via Open Library
Contents:
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION -- Definition and Method: Ethical and moral, specific problem -- Importance of genetic study -- The moral as a growth -- Divisions of the treatment -- PART I THE BEGINNINGS AND GROWTH OF M0RALITY -- CHAPTER II. EARLY GROUP LIFE -- Typical facts of group life -- Primitive unity and solidarity -- Kinship and household groups -- The kinship group -- The family or household group -- Kinship and family groups as economic and industrial units -- The land and the group -- Movable goods -- Kinship and family groups as political bodies -- Their control over the individual -- Rights and responsibility -- The kinship or household as a religious unit -- Totem groups -- Ancestral religion -- Age and sex groups -- Moral significance of the group -- CHAPTER III. BASIC ACTIVITIES AND AGENCIES -- Biological factors -- Rationalizing agencies - work -- Arts and crafts -- Exploring and thinking -- Socializing agencies -- Language -- Cooperation -- Art -- Moral interpretation of this first level --
CHAPTER IV. GROUP MORALITY -- CUSTOMS AND MORES -- Meaning, authority, and origin of customs -- Means of enforcing custom: Public approval, taboos, rituals, force -- Conditions which render group control conscious -- Educational customs -- Law and justice -- Danger or crisis -- Values and defects of customary morality -- Standards, motives, content, organization of character -- PART V. FROM CUSTOM TO CONSCIENCE; FROM GROUP MORALITY TO PERSONAL MORALITY -- Contrast and collision -- Sociological agencies in the transition -- Economic forces -- Science and the arts -- Military forces -- Religious forces -- Psychological agencies -- Sex -- Private property Struggles for mastery and liberty -- Honor and esteem -- Positive reconstruction --
CHAPTER VI. THE HEBREW MORAL DEVELOPMENT -- Problem and background -- Religious agencies -- Personal law-giver -- Cultus -- Prophets -- The kingdom -- The sage -- Moral conceptions attained -- Righteousness and sin -- Responsibility -- Purity of motive -- The ideal of "life," -- The social ideal -- CHAPTER VII. THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEKS -- The fundamental notes -- Convention versus nature -- Measure -- Good and just -- Intellectual forces of individualism -- The scientific spirit -- Commercial and political individualism -- Class interests -- Why obey laws? -- Individualism and ethical theory -- The question formulated -- Individualistic theories -- The deeper view of nature and the good, of the individual and social order -- Aristotle on the natural -- Plato's ideal state -- Passion or reason -- Eudæmonism and the mean -- Man and the cosmos -- The conception of the ideal -- Contrast with the actual -- Ethical significance -- The conception of the self, of character and responsibility -- The poets -- Plato and the Stoics --
CHAPTER VIII. THE ROMAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE MODERN MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS -- Roman society -- A governing society -- A leveler of class barriers -- The power of wealth -- Moral ideas -- Nature as source of law -- Men as equal -- Justice as rightful test of government -- Duty -- CHAPTER IX. FACTORS AND TRENDS IN THE MODERN MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS -- Medieval period -- Authority and unity -- In the church -- In government -- In the economic field -- The Renaissance and Reformation to the revolutions -- Nationalism -- A middle class and civil liberty -- Religious liberty -- Economic development -- Modern science in the Renaissance and Enlightenment -- Art and letters -- Since the revolutions -- Democracy -- Industrial revolution -- Natural and social science -- Sources of Present-day moral conceptions -- Interpretation of modern trends by ethical systems -- Selfish system of Hobbes -- Moral sense theory -- Kantian theory -- Utilitarianism --
PART II: THEORY OF THE MORAL LIFE -- CHAPTER X. THE NATURE OF MORAL THEORY -- Reflective morality and ethical theory -- The nature of a moral act -- Voluntary and indifferent acts -- Conduct and character -- Conduct as serial -- Nature of habit -- Motive and consequences -- Attitude versus content -- Nature of a motive -- Present need of theory -- Effect of social change -- Sources of moral theory -- Classification of problems -- Good, Duty, and Virtue -- CHAPTER XI. ENDS, THE GOOD AND WISDOM -- Reflection and ends -- The framing of aims -- Ends and the Good -- The relation of desire and thought -- Pleasure as the good and evil -- Hedonism -- Criticized -- Place of insight -- Pleasure different from happiness -- The Epicurean theory of good and wisdom -- Enjoyment as present -- Success as the end -- Asceticism as the end -- The importance of exercise to control desire -- Conclusion: Cultivation of interests as the end -- Ideal and natural ends -- Effect of social conditions --
CHAPTER XII. RIGHT, DUTY AND LOYALTY -- The idea of the Right -- Relation of right and good -- The origin of moral claims -- The nature of social demands -- The Kantian Theory -- Exclusion of consequences -- Universality and social consequences -- The justification of a claim -- Necessary interdependence -- Wrong as faithlessness -- The sense of diety -- Nature of principle -- Social influence -- CHAPTER XIII. APPROBATION, THE STANDARD AND VIRTUE -- Approval and disapproval as original facts -- Sympathetic praise and blame -- The nature of standards and of utilitarian theory -- Regulation of approval and condemnation -- sympathy and approval -- Confusion of utilitarianism with hedonism -- The end and standard -- Mill's emphasis upon disposition -- Upon social ties -- The relation of ends and standards -- Desire and reflective judgment -- Nature of happiness -- The place of justice and benevolence in the standard -- Formalism -- Sentimentalism -- Social service of utilitarianism -- Praise and blame as moral forces -- The approvable -- The conception of virtue in reflective morality -- The qualities of approvable interest -- The cardinal virtues --
CHAPTER XIV. MORAL JUDGMENT AND KNOWLEDGE -- Moral judgments as intuitive or developed -- Importance of problem -- Judgments of value -- The immediate sense of value and its limitations -- Funded experience -- Sensitivity and thoughtfulness -- Correlative factors in judgment -- Place of sympathy -- Conscience and deliberation -- Revision of standards -- The ideal -- The nature and office of principles -- Principles versus rules -- Casuistry -- Intellectual tools -- The will to know -- CHAPTER XV. THE MORAL SELF -- The self and choice -- Problems of the self -- Preference and conscious choice -- The self and motivation -- Interests -- The unity of self and act -- Nature of external stimulus -- Nature of an objective interest -- Egoism and altruism -- As acquired -- Selfishness -- Self-respect -- Conscious regard for others -- The inclusive nature of social interest -- Underlies distinction of self and not-self -- Misconception of charity -- Self-realization -- Responsibility and freedom -- Prospective, not retrospective -- Freedom and growth -- Summary of Part II --
PART III: THE WORLD OF ACTION -- CHAPTER XVI. MORALS AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS -- The moral significance of social problems -- Social change and moral problems -- Value of theory -- Personal and social morals -- Pressing question -- The underlying issue -- Individual and social, 354; individualism and collectivism, 335. -- 3. Three aspects of the conflict -- Conflict analyzed -- Dominant and inferior group -- Conservative and progressive -- Private and public -- The problem of method -- Authoritative versus experimental -- Historic individualism -- Economic, political, philosophic, psychological -- Conditions of Origin -- Its formula -- Criticized --
PART XVII. MORALS AND THE POLITICAL ORDER -- Does the social environment have moral import? -- Effect of dualism -- Typical influences -- Problem of method -- The nature of the criterion of social conditions -- The common good -- Equality -- And individuality -- Democratic ideal -- Some special political problems -- Democratic government -- Defects of traditional democratic theory -- Politics and economics -- Liberty of thought and expression -- Central in democracy -- Attacks on -- Importance of free expression -- Criticisms of democratic culture -- Education -- Economic limitations -- Nationalism - International relations -- Peace and war -- Nationalism -- Patriotism -- War --
CHAPTER XVIII. ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC LIFE -- Production, capitalism, competition -- Work -- capitalism -- Competition -- Some ethical problems of industry -- Early problems -- The machine -- Security -- CHAPTER XIX. CoLLEcTIVE BARGAINING AND THE LABOR UNION -- Conflicting interests of employer and employed -- Five grounds of conflict -- Impersonal relations -- Bargaining power determines -- Wages -- The day's work -- Shop rules and conditions -- Risk bearing -- How can bargaining power be equalized -- Organization -- Equipment -- Allies in law and legislation -- Adair and Coppage cases -- Hitchman case -- Substituting reason for force -- CHAPTER XX. MORAL PROBLEMS OF BUSINESS -- The profit motive -- Advantages claimed -- Defects charged -- Waste of natural resources -- The difficult problem of justice -- Four theories of just distribution -- To each what he earns -- Capitalistic theory -- Equal shares -- To each what is necessary for a good society --
CHAPTER XXI. SOCIAL CONTROL OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY -- Factory legislation under the police power -- Properly affected with a public interest -- Sherman Act -- Fair competition -- Restriction of immigration -- Income tax -- CHAPTER XXII. TOWARD THE FUTURE -- Tendencies within the capitalistic system -- Radical alternatives -- Communism -- Fascism -- If capitalism is to continue -- Improvements needed -- ProductiOn and waste -- Security -- Safety -- Education -- Just distribution -- A distorted perspective -- CHAPTER XXII. MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY -- Antecedents of the modern family -- Maternal type -- Paternal type -- Influence of the church -- Recent changes in society and ideas -- Economic changes -- Changes in ideas -- Marriage from the individual point of view -- Marriage from the social point of view -- Special problems of adjustment -- Index.
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"General literature" at beginning of each part; "Literature" at end of each chapter.

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION -- Definition and Method: Ethical and moral, specific problem -- Importance of genetic study -- The moral as a growth -- Divisions of the treatment -- PART I THE BEGINNINGS AND GROWTH OF M0RALITY -- CHAPTER II. EARLY GROUP LIFE -- Typical facts of group life -- Primitive unity and solidarity -- Kinship and household groups -- The kinship group -- The family or household group -- Kinship and family groups as economic and industrial units -- The land and the group -- Movable goods -- Kinship and family groups as political bodies -- Their control over the individual -- Rights and responsibility -- The kinship or household as a religious unit -- Totem groups -- Ancestral religion -- Age and sex groups -- Moral significance of the group -- CHAPTER III. BASIC ACTIVITIES AND AGENCIES -- Biological factors -- Rationalizing agencies - work -- Arts and crafts -- Exploring and thinking -- Socializing agencies -- Language -- Cooperation -- Art -- Moral interpretation of this first level --

CHAPTER IV. GROUP MORALITY -- CUSTOMS AND MORES -- Meaning, authority, and origin of customs -- Means of enforcing custom: Public approval, taboos, rituals, force -- Conditions which render group control conscious -- Educational customs -- Law and justice -- Danger or crisis -- Values and defects of customary morality -- Standards, motives, content, organization of character -- PART V. FROM CUSTOM TO CONSCIENCE; FROM GROUP MORALITY TO PERSONAL MORALITY -- Contrast and collision -- Sociological agencies in the transition -- Economic forces -- Science and the arts -- Military forces -- Religious forces -- Psychological agencies -- Sex -- Private property Struggles for mastery and liberty -- Honor and esteem -- Positive reconstruction --

CHAPTER VI. THE HEBREW MORAL DEVELOPMENT -- Problem and background -- Religious agencies -- Personal law-giver -- Cultus -- Prophets -- The kingdom -- The sage -- Moral conceptions attained -- Righteousness and sin -- Responsibility -- Purity of motive -- The ideal of "life," -- The social ideal -- CHAPTER VII. THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEKS -- The fundamental notes -- Convention versus nature -- Measure -- Good and just -- Intellectual forces of individualism -- The scientific spirit -- Commercial and political individualism -- Class interests -- Why obey laws? -- Individualism and ethical theory -- The question formulated -- Individualistic theories -- The deeper view of nature and the good, of the individual and social order -- Aristotle on the natural -- Plato's ideal state -- Passion or reason -- Eudæmonism and the mean -- Man and the cosmos -- The conception of the ideal -- Contrast with the actual -- Ethical significance -- The conception of the self, of character and responsibility -- The poets -- Plato and the Stoics --

CHAPTER VIII. THE ROMAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE MODERN MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS -- Roman society -- A governing society -- A leveler of class barriers -- The power of wealth -- Moral ideas -- Nature as source of law -- Men as equal -- Justice as rightful test of government -- Duty -- CHAPTER IX. FACTORS AND TRENDS IN THE MODERN MORAL CONSCIOUSNESS -- Medieval period -- Authority and unity -- In the church -- In government -- In the economic field -- The Renaissance and Reformation to the revolutions -- Nationalism -- A middle class and civil liberty -- Religious liberty -- Economic development -- Modern science in the Renaissance and Enlightenment -- Art and letters -- Since the revolutions -- Democracy -- Industrial revolution -- Natural and social science -- Sources of Present-day moral conceptions -- Interpretation of modern trends by ethical systems -- Selfish system of Hobbes -- Moral sense theory -- Kantian theory -- Utilitarianism --

PART II: THEORY OF THE MORAL LIFE -- CHAPTER X. THE NATURE OF MORAL THEORY -- Reflective morality and ethical theory -- The nature of a moral act -- Voluntary and indifferent acts -- Conduct and character -- Conduct as serial -- Nature of habit -- Motive and consequences -- Attitude versus content -- Nature of a motive -- Present need of theory -- Effect of social change -- Sources of moral theory -- Classification of problems -- Good, Duty, and Virtue -- CHAPTER XI. ENDS, THE GOOD AND WISDOM -- Reflection and ends -- The framing of aims -- Ends and the Good -- The relation of desire and thought -- Pleasure as the good and evil -- Hedonism -- Criticized -- Place of insight -- Pleasure different from happiness -- The Epicurean theory of good and wisdom -- Enjoyment as present -- Success as the end -- Asceticism as the end -- The importance of exercise to control desire -- Conclusion: Cultivation of interests as the end -- Ideal and natural ends -- Effect of social conditions --

CHAPTER XII. RIGHT, DUTY AND LOYALTY -- The idea of the Right -- Relation of right and good -- The origin of moral claims -- The nature of social demands -- The Kantian Theory -- Exclusion of consequences -- Universality and social consequences -- The justification of a claim -- Necessary interdependence -- Wrong as faithlessness -- The sense of diety -- Nature of principle -- Social influence -- CHAPTER XIII. APPROBATION, THE STANDARD AND VIRTUE -- Approval and disapproval as original facts -- Sympathetic praise and blame -- The nature of standards and of utilitarian theory -- Regulation of approval and condemnation -- sympathy and approval -- Confusion of utilitarianism with hedonism -- The end and standard -- Mill's emphasis upon disposition -- Upon social ties -- The relation of ends and standards -- Desire and reflective judgment -- Nature of happiness -- The place of justice and benevolence in the standard -- Formalism -- Sentimentalism -- Social service of utilitarianism -- Praise and blame as moral forces -- The approvable -- The conception of virtue in reflective morality -- The qualities of approvable interest -- The cardinal virtues --

CHAPTER XIV. MORAL JUDGMENT AND KNOWLEDGE -- Moral judgments as intuitive or developed -- Importance of problem -- Judgments of value -- The immediate sense of value and its limitations -- Funded experience -- Sensitivity and thoughtfulness -- Correlative factors in judgment -- Place of sympathy -- Conscience and deliberation -- Revision of standards -- The ideal -- The nature and office of principles -- Principles versus rules -- Casuistry -- Intellectual tools -- The will to know -- CHAPTER XV. THE MORAL SELF -- The self and choice -- Problems of the self -- Preference and conscious choice -- The self and motivation -- Interests -- The unity of self and act -- Nature of external stimulus -- Nature of an objective interest -- Egoism and altruism -- As acquired -- Selfishness -- Self-respect -- Conscious regard for others -- The inclusive nature of social interest -- Underlies distinction of self and not-self -- Misconception of charity -- Self-realization -- Responsibility and freedom -- Prospective, not retrospective -- Freedom and growth -- Summary of Part II --

PART III: THE WORLD OF ACTION -- CHAPTER XVI. MORALS AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS -- The moral significance of social problems -- Social change and moral problems -- Value of theory -- Personal and social morals -- Pressing question -- The underlying issue -- Individual and social, 354; individualism and collectivism, 335. -- 3. Three aspects of the conflict -- Conflict analyzed -- Dominant and inferior group -- Conservative and progressive -- Private and public -- The problem of method -- Authoritative versus experimental -- Historic individualism -- Economic, political, philosophic, psychological -- Conditions of Origin -- Its formula -- Criticized --

PART XVII. MORALS AND THE POLITICAL ORDER -- Does the social environment have moral import? -- Effect of dualism -- Typical influences -- Problem of method -- The nature of the criterion of social conditions -- The common good -- Equality -- And individuality -- Democratic ideal -- Some special political problems -- Democratic government -- Defects of traditional democratic theory -- Politics and economics -- Liberty of thought and expression -- Central in democracy -- Attacks on -- Importance of free expression -- Criticisms of democratic culture -- Education -- Economic limitations -- Nationalism - International relations -- Peace and war -- Nationalism -- Patriotism -- War --

CHAPTER XVIII. ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF THE ECONOMIC LIFE -- Production, capitalism, competition -- Work -- capitalism -- Competition -- Some ethical problems of industry -- Early problems -- The machine -- Security -- CHAPTER XIX. CoLLEcTIVE BARGAINING AND THE LABOR UNION -- Conflicting interests of employer and employed -- Five grounds of conflict -- Impersonal relations -- Bargaining power determines -- Wages -- The day's work -- Shop rules and conditions -- Risk bearing -- How can bargaining power be equalized -- Organization -- Equipment -- Allies in law and legislation -- Adair and Coppage cases -- Hitchman case -- Substituting reason for force -- CHAPTER XX. MORAL PROBLEMS OF BUSINESS -- The profit motive -- Advantages claimed -- Defects charged -- Waste of natural resources -- The difficult problem of justice -- Four theories of just distribution -- To each what he earns -- Capitalistic theory -- Equal shares -- To each what is necessary for a good society --

CHAPTER XXI. SOCIAL CONTROL OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY -- Factory legislation under the police power -- Properly affected with a public interest -- Sherman Act -- Fair competition -- Restriction of immigration -- Income tax -- CHAPTER XXII. TOWARD THE FUTURE -- Tendencies within the capitalistic system -- Radical alternatives -- Communism -- Fascism -- If capitalism is to continue -- Improvements needed -- ProductiOn and waste -- Security -- Safety -- Education -- Just distribution -- A distorted perspective -- CHAPTER XXII. MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY -- Antecedents of the modern family -- Maternal type -- Paternal type -- Influence of the church -- Recent changes in society and ideas -- Economic changes -- Changes in ideas -- Marriage from the individual point of view -- Marriage from the social point of view -- Special problems of adjustment -- Index.

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